cuatro mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).
Dining table step one.
Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl
Beliefs is actually indicated once the suggest±SEM. Pee are gathered to possess 24 hr within six, several, and you will 18 wk to decide solute levels once the explained regarding the Concise Measures.
K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).
K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.
Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
Serum amounts of calcium supplements and PTH did not disagree anywhere between K-cit–fed and you will KCl-fed rats, when you’re gel phosphate account was indeed ;fed mice ( Figure step three ).
K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.
K-cit didn’t change the number of stones molded or the quantity away from calcification on kidneys ( Shape 4 ). All of the mice designed rocks out-of similar size and you can density together with similar degrees of calcification from inside the renal and you may event system.
Kidney brick formation and calcification wasn’t other inside the mice fed KCl or K-cit. At the conclusion of the newest 18-times analysis, this new the amount of kidney stones and you will aplicaciones de citas para adultos que viajan calcification are determined by about three observers because discussed throughout the To the level Tips. Extent regarding renal calcification was also computed while the described about To the point Measures. (A) Associate radiographs of kidneys regarding rats getting KCl or K-cit. Calcification results on the photos shown are given since the a research. (B) Quantitation regarding brick development and you may calcification in most rats acquiring KCl otherwise K-cit. Values are indicate±SEM.
Visible rocks were dissected out-of user kidneys away from each other groups and you will analyzed to own amazingly morphology. The new diffraction models for all analyzed products was congruent on diffraction pattern out-of biologic apatite, a limit brick ( Contour 5 , top). Having usage of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), every kidney stone crystals had a rod- otherwise needle-instance figure, just like the morphology out-of biologic apatite crystals ( Figure 5 , bottom) and you may instead of the octahedral amazingly morphology from CaOx.